講演者: Dr. Jonathon D. Crystal (Indiana University)
日 時: 2017年9月9日（土） 15:00～16:30 （延長する場合があります）
場 所: 関西学院大学上ケ原キャンパス 図書館ホール
タイトル：Animal models of episodic memory
People retrieve episodic memories about specific earlier events that happened to them.
Accordingly, researchers have sought to evaluate the hypothesis that nonhumans
retrieve episodic memories. The central hypothesis of an animal model of episodic
memory is that, at the moment of a memory assessment, the animal retrieves a memory
of a specific earlier event. Testing this hypothesis requires the elimination of non-
episodic memory hypotheses. We developed of a range of approaches, so that we have
working models to evaluate elements of episodic memory in animals. These
approaches include: what-where- when memory (Zhou & Crystal 2009, PNAS); source
memory (Crystal, Alford, Zhou, & Hohmann 2013, Current Biology); binding of episodic
memories (Crystal & Smith 2014, Current Biology); multiple item-in- context memories
(Panoz-Brown et al., 2016, Current Biology); replay of episodic memories (Panoz-Brown
et al., unpublished); and answering unexpected questions after incidental encoding
(Zhou, Hohmann, & Crystal 2012, Current Biology). In each approach, compelling
evidence for episodic memory comes from studies in which judgments of familiarity
cannot produce accurate choices in memory assessments. These approaches may be
used to explore the evolution of cognition.
Dr. Crystal talked about several evidences of episodic memory in rats. He approaches the episodic memory hypothesis in animal models by converging various lines of evidence. In this lecture, he introduced six lines of evidence in his research to support the episodic memory hypothesis.
He evaluated the elements of episodic memory by designing ingenious experiments using the eight-arm radial maze. The results obtained have clarified the following features of episodic memory. (1) Rats remember the precise time at which an earlier event occurred (“what-where-when memory”), (2) Rats remember the source by which they acquired information about an event (“source memory”). (3) Rats bind multiple features of similar events to disambiguate multiple episodic memories (“binding of episodic memories”).
In addition, he introduced the use of odor stimuli to episodic memory research. (4) Rats remember many items and the contexts in which they occurred, using episodic memory (“multiple item-in context memory”). (5) Rats remember the sequence of episodic memories (“replay of episodic memories”).
Finally, he designed an ingenious experiment in which rats encode incidental information. Subsequently, he investigated whether rats could correctly answer an unexpected question. (6) Rats use memories of an event to answer an unexpected question (“answering unexpected questions after incidental encoding”).
In his experiment, the paradigm was very cleverly designed. Further, he included not only psychological but also neuroscientific approaches, which I felt were necessary to be incorporated.
Many questions were asked by the audience, and it was an exciting lecture.